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EVO-DEVO AND THE EXPANSION

OF THE EVOLUTIONARY SYNTHESIS

Milton H. Gallardo Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, CHILE. mgallard@uach.cl After intense discussion and reevaluation, the Darwin-Russel Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection, advanced in 1858, was amplified to become the Modern Synthesis.

This expansion included the ideas and contributions of Mendel, Weismann, Dobzhansky, Mayr, Stebbins, Simpson, among others. The basic tenets of the Modern Synthesis, like the causal role of natural selection, descend with modification, the role of chance events, and the concept of monophyly, have been kept practically intact for 150 years. Nevertheless, Karl Popper noticed that the current evolutionary theory is a theory of genes and that to account for the organic diversity, a theory of forms would be needed. This claim has been taken care of rather recently by the empirical discoveries and new ideas provided by the evolutionary developmental biology (evodevo). The mechanistic explanations concerning the role of developmental genes have expanded our understanding about the evolution of form and have falsified the notion that evolution is caused by changes in allele frequencies.

The on-going integration of the Modern Synthesis with evo-devo is aiming for a mechanistic understanding of phenotypic change. To achieve this goal, an organic grafting of novel concepts onto the foundational structure of the modern synthesis, particularly in connection with epigenetic inheritance, complexity theory, evolvability, and phenotypic plasticity, is needed. This more inclusive conceptual framework will also require an expanded theory of heredity, a reevaluation of the levels of selection, and an understanding of evolution in highly dimensional adaptive landscapes. Like its predecessor, this expanded theory of evolution will probably take decades to complete.

Partially funded by FNC 7100711 to MHG , : .. , .. - .. 10:00-10: - .. 10:40-10: : - - .. 10:55-11: - .. , 11:10-11: : - .. , , .. , 11:25-11: .. : - .. 12:00-12: .. , 12:15-12: - .. , - .. , 12:30-12: .. , - .. , 12:45-13: Myodes .. , : .. , .. .. , Microtus arvalis - .. , .. , .. , (Microtus arvalis) .. .

- .. , (Microtus arvalis) - .. rutilus Pallas, 1779) (M. .. , Glareolus Schreber, 1780) .. , : - .. , .. neodon: .. ?

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. , 10:45-11: , .. - .. , 11:00-11: - - .. , - .. , 11:15-11: Myodes glareolus M. rutilus .. C -- .., 12:15-12: . (Marmota) . - .. , 12:30-12: calomorum .. , .. , 12:45-13: - .. , . .. .. , 13:00-13: .. : .. , .. .. 15:30-16: - .. 15:45-16: - .. 16:00-16: (Marmota) bobak

.. 16:15-16: Terricola (Rodentia, Arvicolinae) .. , 16:30-16: - .. , 18:00-18: , - .. , - . - Sorex araneus l., - .. , 18:15-18: - .. Sorex araneus P Sorex .. , 18:30-18: satunini gnev, 1922 .. (Talpa . , 18:45-19: europaea) - . , : .. , .. - .. 10:00-10: : - .. 10:30-10: Sorex araneus F1 .. , 10:45-11: - - .. , (Rodentia, Ellobius) .. , .. , 11:00-11: - .. - .. , 11:15-11: - - .. / .. , 12:15-12: Sylvaemus .. uralensis - .. , 12:30-12: (Capreolus pygargus) .. , . - .. .. , 12:45-13: .. Phodopus sungorus Ph.

campbelli (Cricetinae, Rodentia) - .. , 13:00-13: - .. , - .. , 15:45-16: Sorex araneus .. , S. satunini .. (Mammalia) : .. , .. -- .. , 15:30-16: - .. , ( . .. , .. 16:00-16: - - .., 16:15-16: .. , - .., .. Arvicolinae - .. - 16:30-16: , .. , Evo-devo and the expansion of the M.H. Gallardo 17:00-19: evolutionary synthesis

ߔ (SYLVAEMUS) .. , ..

(RODENTIA, DIPODOIDEA, SICISTA)

SUBTILIS .. , . . , ..

- APODEMUS PENINSULAE (RODENTIA) .. , ..

MERIONES MERIDIANUS PALLAS, 1773 ..

: ..

(VULPES VULPES) (ALOPEX LAGOPUS)

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PHODOPUS SUNGORUS

PHODOPUS CAMPBELLI (CRICETINAE, RODENTIA) .. , ..

b

(SOREX ARANEUS L.) .. , .. , .. , .. (TALPA EUROPAEA) .. , ..

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46- MICROTUS

ARVALIS S. L. .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , ..

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EOLAGURUS LUTEUS : ..

.. , .. COLOBOTIS (SPERMOPHILUS, RODENTIA) .. , .. , ..

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(-, - ) MUS MUSCULUS

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CHIONOMYS

(RODENTIA, ARVICOLINAE) .. , .. , .. , ..

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(SCIURIDAE,

RODENTIA, MAMMALIA) .. , ..

MICROTUS FORIS BUCHNER, 1889

APODEMUS AGRARIUS PALLAS, 1771 .. , .. , .. , .. , ..

CRASEOMYS .. , ..

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SOREX ARANEUS

(MAMMALIA) ..

MARTES MARTES L, 1758 MARTES FOINA (ERXLEBEN,

1777)

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COELODONTA ANTIQUITATIS

BLUMENBACH, 1799 (ARTIODACTYLA: RHINOCEROTIDAE) ..

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MELES .. , ..

(SPERMOPHILUS) .. , .. , .. , ..

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MELES MELES L. MELES ANAKUMA TEMM.

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(RODENTIA, MYOSPALACINAE)

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SOREX

ARANEUS: .

., .. , .. , .. .. , .. , ..

SPERMOPHILUS PYGMAEUS S. MUSICUS .. , .. , ..

(SPERMOPHILUS MAJOR) (S. SUSLICUS)

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(MUS MUSCULUS MUS SPICILEGUS)

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(SPERMOPHILUS MAJOR)

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