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(BUSINESS ENGLISH)

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10 UNITS, , , , , , , .

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UNIT 1 ( (WORD BUILDING )

. 1. .

NOUN SUFFIXES

Verb + suffix Adjective + suffix . 2. . , :

- MENT; -ION; -ATION; NESS; ITY.

improve, measure, weak, manage, equip, replace, govern, educate, stupid, televise, elect, dark, translate, hesitate, arrange, popular . 3. :

, , , , , , , , , , .

. 4. :

1.We need good measurements.

2.Laptops and cell-phones are standard equipment for all supervisors.

3.Management insisted on an aggressive schedule in developing a replacement for the shuttle.

4.BST measured attitudes to safety and work environment and said that the culture had changed.

5.Ideologies that proposed some economic betterment and offered self-respect to many people in Africa all collapsed and have given way oligarchies that justified their policies.

6.Lots of companies talk about decentralizing, responsibility and authority.

7.Dividends went up due to a 13% rise in average customer profitability.

8.The company needed to know more about profitability of its individual customers.

9.The USA remains the worlds leading producer of goods and services, although its margin of superiority is diminishing.

10. Michael L. Nemmers is a distinguished professor of Strategy and Organizations in Evanston.





11.Along the way, RBC won a host of information technology awards.

12.NASA has changed enough to make safety a priority.

13.They did that on the assumption that this would attract new customers and increase loyalty.

ADJECTIVE+ Suffix (-NESS) = NOUN Open + -ness = openness VERB+Suffix (-ANCE; also ENCE)= NOUN Perform + -ance = performance

VERB NOUN

. 5. :

Performance, insurance, governance,.reliance, strictness, openness, comprehensiveness, competitiveness. uniqueness.

1..They establish benchmarks.

2. Their customers might be children,their parents or their companies.

3.It raises the rewards to economies choosing good economic.

4. It will depend on the choice of products and the of the rules.

5.The commitment to is much more crucial now than even just 15 years ago.

6.That liberal trade policy is possible only because of the of the agreement.

7.Advanced countries, educated and with considerable property interests, are in favor of greater Third World .

8.On the first question regarding , the answer is that many developing and transient economies are opening up substantially.

9.Some leaders view involving employees in decision making as a sign of .

10.Retailers must strive for flawless fulfillment and customer service.

11.The ability to keep tweaking roles to capitalize on of each person is the essence of great management.

12.Capitalizing on each persons is a powerful tool.

NOUN +Suffix ( -SHIP) = NOUN 5-. . .

1.With so many countries seeking membership / leadership, the budgets for those programs may need to expand further.

2.In addition to the 30 countries in the queue for membership/ relationship currently, perhaps another 20 will apply soon.

3.Within a decade the WTO will have much the same membership/ leadership number and composition as the United Nations.

4.The most effective leadership/ membership style depends on the circumstances.

. 6. 1. .

2. , .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. , .

7. .

8. .

9. , .

10. .

ADJECTIVE FORMATION

-ive: innovative -al: financial -ous: outrageous . 7. :

effective, massive, comprehensive, innovative, organizational, continental, exceptional, doctoral, financial, personal, theoretical, realistic, analytical, . 8: .

Adjective Noun charismatic confident loyal reliable determined . 9 , .

Advisable, changeable, suitable, dependable, adjustable, acceptable, readable, enjoyable;

Productive, informative, creative, attractive, talkative, protective, decisive.

10. , .

Adventurous, nervous, dangerous, ambitious, disastrous, famous, suspicious, industrious;

Practical, psychological, political, clerical, critical;

Democratic, energetic, scientific, sympathetic, climatic.

. 11. Financial innovative convenient necessary impressive invaluable 1.People didnt choose a bank on the basis of how it was.

2.The organizational changes are .

3.They wanted to find a more way to measure and increase customer satisfaction.

4.This diverse set of businesses ranges from institutions, gambling giants and to massive telecom carrier SBC Communications.

5.The company can be proud of its customer-facing computer systems.

6.They created a picture of each customers needs.

7.The countrys reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced growth.

8. As a boss in a bad economy, you may not be able to give people much control over what happens, but you must be to them.

9. One boss at a troubled company recently launches a sales campaign.

10. A plan is an benchmark against which you can compare your predictions with what actually happens.

.12. . .

1.The Continentals and the RBCs are as exceptional as their results are.

2.Compare this against the 2% to 5 % response rate typical of standard marketing programs.

3.He is a doctoral student at the Kellog School.

4.Like most financial institutions of the time, RBC had been investing heavily in banking.

5.RBC is Canadas largest financial institution, with more than million personal, business and public-sector clients and offices in some 30 countries worldwide.

6.They use this insight to guide not only their product and service decisions but their basic strategy and organizational strategy as well.

7.The organizational changes are necessary to navigate from one stage to the next.

8.The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith.

9.This arrangement is simple and efficient,and affords each employee a sense of personal responsibility.

10. When it comes to internal communications,your mantra should be Simple, concrete and repetitive.) . 13. :

1. ; 2 ; 3.

; 4. ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ; 8. ; 9. ; 10.

VERB FORMATION:

ify . 13. :

Analyze, organize, recognize, standardize, qualify, simplify democratize, disqualify, secularize, westernize, clarify, emphasize . 14. , :

(Secularized, westernized, modernized), clarifying, disqualified, emphasize, are terrified, recognized, analyzed, standardize, qualify, simplified 1.They their customers no matter what part of the bank they did business with.

2.The company all of its customer interaction information.

3.First, bring organizations together and information drawn from customers, then organize it by customer.

4. Many Europeans doubt whether Turkey will ever to join the Union.

5. Taxes should be and better collected.

6.They of any post-war Kurdish state.

7. Turkey, once the seat of Muslim caliphate, was and not just not over centuries to democratize but within a few years.

8. He is going towards the constitutional model favoured by the bigs, with an emphasis on the current powers of the Union.

9. Convinced that its deputies will be in the coming election, the biggest reformist party is considering boycotting the polls.

10. As Turkish sources increasingly , these changes are in Turkish interests.

.15. :

PREFIXES

Microbadly\wrongly mismanagement PostIn favour of pro-government PseudoAgain or back remove Subsubcontract Under. 16. .

:

Overproduction, overemphasize, overdo, underperform, multipurpose, semiconductor, semiautomatic, bilateral, pseudodemocratic, post-crisis, sub-contract, replace, underestimate, expartner, monoculture, misbehavior, antidumping. multilateral, multinational, unilateral . 17. . :

1.Irans largest oil buyers, India and China, have been seen as natural replacements for the loss of European markets.

2.Engineers have expressed concern about the debris falling from space, but their fears were dismissed.

3.The problems with the public-sector debt, fiscal imbalance might not be the problem of the moment.

4. Many bilateral assistance programs also exist/ 5. Multinational firms and enterprises have been successful in setting the agenda of multilateral trade negotiations.

6.WTO multilateral trade negotiations get under way early in the new century.

7.Developing nations will have to stop looking to financial markets and multilateral agencies for the recipes of economic growth.

8.A program of multilateral assistance does exist and even was expanding.

9.Some of those reform programs have been adopted as conditions for receiving World Bank loans, while others were unconditional unilateral decisions.

10.The focus-on-strength approach might create in the employee some overconfidence.

. 18. , :

behavior.

2. Some not only managed their companies, but defaulted investor too.

3. This courages companies from using equity itself as an incentive.

4. The cost of the incentives should be fully closed.

5. We can advise on -million euro reconstruction projects.

6. If a -Sadam Iraq were back to its trading self, Turkey could benefit enormously.

7. Does EU really want this country, in to-days -Muslim and -immigrant climate?

8. Most of the opposition claims to be -EU.

9. The battle between -western modernizers is not simple.

10. 9.The world will be waiting to see if Discovery can get off its launch pad without hap.

(OPPOSITES):

. 19. :

ILresponsible Irresponsible DIScentralize Decentralize NON. 20. .

:

Misunderstand, mismanagement, misread, unfriendly, unable, unemployed, untidy, unjust, unfortunate, uncover, unemployment, unknown, disagree; dislike, dishonest, disintegrate, dismiss, dismantle, dislocate, dissatisfied, imbalances, impatient, immobile, non-resident, nonsense, decrease, destruct, inequality, inevitable, invisible, intangible, inconvenient, . 21. .

:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

. 22. . :

1.Economic inequality also translates into a cultural aspect.

2.In an expanding economy, structural change is necessary and inevitable.

3.The market forces which Smith termed the invisible hand, control the allocation of goods.

4.Intangible assets are defined as non- monetary assets that cannot be seen.

5.They know that this information is useless if employees cant or wont share what they learn about with their customers, either because its inconvenient or because it doesnt serve their interests.

6.In one case the company tested different responses to customers who had been inconvenienced in some way, such as the flight was delayed.

7.. Europes welfare state is extensive and its dismantlement is more socially disruptive.

8.The disclosure of a potentially market-moving information to people not authorized to hear it, is illegal.

9.Iran has suggested its petroleum could be simply displaced, not lost.

10. But experts disagree, saying the sanctions are likely to be a boon to the worlds largest oil producers, Russia and Saudi Arabia.

. 23. , :

Dis-; un-;

Integrated spaceship Fortunate event . 24. .

1.. were relatively equal across skill levels.

2.They took a systematic look at how passengers were treated when a plane was significantly delayed, or during some other .

3.One of the first facts they was a service mess that was costing the airline million dollars every year.

4.Ricardo in his Principles discussed which was due to the introduction of machinery.

5.About 40 per cent of international consignments are typically turned back by .

6. upon entering the Earths atmosphere, killd seven crew members.

7.After the slow and of the 1990s, Russias economy has been growing steadily.

8.It is this that is easily , and it has been misunderstood, in a certain way, by its critics.

. 25. .

ADJECTIVE OPPOSITE NOUN FORM

convenient dependent efficient equal employed fortunate possible responsible western . 26. . :

1. .

2. , .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. 40% .

7. .

8. , .

9. .

10. - , .

(SOME OTHER PREFIXES):

. 27. .

.

1. Too little 2. Better/ more than 3.Extremely 4.Before 5.Between or involving two things(people) 6.Too much 7.More than usual . 28. .

: Interdependence, intersectorial, interrelated, interaction, international, inter-governmental, inter-communal, interconnected, outnumbered, overdone, overemphasize.

B: , , , , , , , , , , .

. 29. . :

1. For all their wildly overdone dreams of the economic toys of EU membership, the 60-70 % support can crumble rapidly.

2. The governments fear that a loser, more inter-governmental EU, would be run by the bigs and their own voices would be ignored.

3.. The protesters were in many cases outnumbered by the police.

4. There was stagnation after six months of inter-communal talks in Cyprus.

5. They opened new branches to create a web of inter-connected deal-making centers.

6.The chairman intends to let the delegates talk themselves out before presenting his own pre-cooked constitutional draft.

7.Overproduction often doesnt bring farmers enough income to live on.

8. It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of our individual contribute to the companys profitability.

9. Yet in a more interdependent world with an easy access to deadly weapons, such politics may find many followers.

10.With services and intellectual property added, it makes a wider range of intersectorial tradeoffs possible.

11. As a result, organizations may have to manage and collate their interactions with several interrelated customers together.

12. Political leaders of the advanced countries have chosen to champion trade liberalization but not international mobility.

13. Capitalizing on what is unique about each person builds a stronger sense of team, because it creates interdependency.

. 30. .

1. , .

2. , .

3. .

4. .

5. , , .

6. .

7. .

8. .

9. .

10. .

. 31. . .

CONCRET

Abstract

VERB ADJECTIV ADVER

E NOUN NOUN E B

agreement (dis)agreeme (dis)agre (dis)agreeabl agreeably liberalizatio power definition likeness economy finance necessity

- RE

. 32. .

Reorient, re-colonization, re-think, redefinition, reappear, reunion.

.33. 1. RBC has learned how to reorient the focus of its entire organization away from products and distribution and toward the real needs of its customers.

2. Globalization appeared as new, more attractive label put on the old imperialism, or worse as a form of re-colonization.

3. Why is re-thinking of the old social contract so much more different for Europe than for the US?

4. Jobs lost in one industry will reappear as new jobs in another industry, 5. At present, most of the net migration from Turkey to Germany is in the form of family reunions.

6. The cause of the fear is a fast reemergence on the world stage of China and India.

7. The two countries are just recapturing the ground lost during the 19th and most of the 20th century.

(Collocations) .34 : RENEW?

RESTORE?

, , .

.

, , , 1. , (sentence adverbs).

, , /.

, . , .

Frankly, he didnt support their idea. He didnt support their idea, frankly.

A. , : (a) actually (= in fact/really), apparently, probably, certainly, clearly, doubtless, evidently, naturally, obviously, of course, presumably, probably, undoubtedly etc.(b) definitely; (c) perhaps, possibly, surely.

. , : He turned down () oddly enough our offer.

B. sentence adverbs: admittedly, (un)fortunately, frankly, honestly, (un)luckily, oddly enough, officially etc. , , .

. 1. , . .

1. ( ), little has changed.

2. ( ), todays business environment is more difficult than ever.

3. Only you can ( ; -) change your life. I cant do it for you.

4. (; () ), there are reasons to think we are near the end, not the beginning, of the dollars five-year-old decline.

5. He ( , ; ) is a top-money launderer (, ) for Mexicos most powerful drug cartel.

6. Russias problem, ( ), was an excessive budget deficit of about 8 percent of GDP.

7. They ( ) reached an agreement.

8. This project could involve such ( ) unrelated organizations as mentioned above.

9. ( ) so far we have no efficient financial incentives for enterprises using new technologies and no necessary tax preferences for investors.

10. I ask them to tell what they do. Invariably, they give their job titles.

11. She (; ) promises savings of from 25% to 30%.

12. He ( ) knew each one of the 700 people in his division by name.

13. He returned home () in financial handcuffs and with his personal life in ruins. (handcuffs n pl ) 14. The point of a liberal market economy is that it civilizes the quest for profit, turning it, (, -), into an engine of social progress.

. 2. , , . , .

1. Inevitably, there have been mis-steps already.

2 Internationally, however, no such agencies exist.

3.I ask them to tell what they do. Invariably, they give their job titles.

4. Both the US and Japan consider it their national destinies to win, but the Japanese have more at stake. Ironically, we need each other.

(at stake ) 5. The reform has passed nevertheless, but the episode is a good example of likely tensions in the process of reform.

6. Not surprisingly, this system ran a large deficit.

7. His work focused primarily on the British economy.

8. But, paradoxically, for the time being, the better and more efficient Chinas economy becomes, the more the advantages will accrue to multinational corporations.

9. Personally, I found being compared to Chamberlain particularly offensive.

10. Bank managers presumably do what is best for their stockholders.

11. He reputedly knew each one of the 700 people in his division by name.

. 3. , , . , .

1. Naturally, all their efforts are designed to expand the flow of surplus value which accrues to them. (1) surplus value ; (2) accrue to sb , 2. Theoretically, the new programs now in the works will create stronger decision makers, better problem solvers, more effective communicators in a word: leaders. (in the works AmE - , , ) 3. Typically, fringe benefits account for about a third of total salary costs.

4. Some methods are understandably more effective than others.

5. His model undoubtedly had its limitations.

6. Briefly, this theory suggests that the individual has a set of quite basic needs and that these are arranged in a hierarchy.

7.The fall in the pound may have been disconcertingly large but it marks an overdue ( , ) adjustment after a long period in which sterling was overpriced.

. 4. , , . , .

1. Last week, unaccountably, the king [Swatziland] decreed the end of this ban.

2. Parents, perhaps unjustifiably, also seemed reasonably content with their teenagers choice of friends.

3. Over the past five years disappointingly few European leaders have spoken as forthrightly (, ) as Mr. Ch. did.

4. Such statements effectively run counter () to EU treaty clauses.

5. They [Denmarks voters] are notoriously suspicious of the EU:

they have already held two referendums on the euro.

6. Painting portraits of the Royal Family is notoriously difficult.

7. Some networks, notably CDS and NBC, said they would be ready to offer their popular programs.

8. Over the past five years disappointingly few European leaders have spoken as forthrightly (, ) as Mr. Ch. did.

9. The main sticking point had been the insistence by Austrias government, ostensibly () isolated but perhaps tacitly () backed by others in the EU, that Turkey be given an explicit alternative to joining the EU: a privileged partnership that falls short of full membership. A common negotiating framework was finally agreed, after Austria had been persuaded to step back in line.

(1) sticking point , ;

; (2) fall short of - , ; (3) step back in line / ;

/) 2. - (adverbs of time).

( ) (adverbs of time): (when?) already, always, eventually, immediately, now, soon, still, tomorrow, yet etc. , , , .

(first, then, next, now, recently, lately, immediately, at once once (= on a certain occasion , ) soon, ( ), , ( , ).

: hardly, scarcely (recentness) , Past Perfect : Hardly had we signed the contract, when . 5. , , . , .

1. A truck service center has closed indefinitely 2. It couldnt continue indefinitely, of course.

3. In years to come, experts predict, many companies will use information technology to become a real-time enterprise an organization that is able to react instantaneously to changes in its business.

4. Customers can order an appliance, select a delivery date and time, and be told instantly whether their request be met.

5. The unexpected severity of the crisis could also indicate that the underlying structural weaknesses in the crisis countries may be more serious than previously thought. (severity - , ) 6. Inflation roared temporarily up in 1990 under an economic stabilization plan. At the cost of a period of stagnation in GDP, prices were then reined in. (GDP = gross domestic product) 7. Utopias even the good ones ultimately fail.

8. He lectures them incessantly on this subject.

9. In years to come, experts predict, many companies will use information technology to become a real-time enterprise an organization that is able to react instantaneously to changes in its business.

10. Customers can order an appliance, select a delivery date and time, and be told instantly whether their request be met.

11. Ultimately, it must be in the best interest of a country to get its imports as cheaply as possible.

12. Ultimately, he was unable to stop the deal from going ahead.

(go ahead ) 3. - (adverbs of manner) , (adverbs of manner): easily, happily, immediately, intentionally, slowly, together etc., , : The use of oil increased steadily. He signed the agreement reluctantly.

, -ly , , . . , .

, () , , , :

They could see the building clearly.

They could clearly see the highest building in China.

. 6 , . .

1. All their campaigns have been ( ) rejected.

2. This stadium was () outdated.

3. He was () responsible for that.

4. The company has said (; ) that it has no interest in owning electricity distribution.

5. We want answers and results ().

6. The use of oil increased (, ).

7. Panic resolves nothing, and () influences the quality of your work.

8. Two words are () linked teenager and problem.

9. He () denied the loan had been used improperly.

10. What this book offers is not how and what to buy cheap and sell ().

11. Often we () t listening is something we do naturally.

12. But if youre in business for yourself, you dont turn off the switch () when you go home. Youre () thinking about it.

. 7 , . .

unobtrusively wholeheartedly properly artificially wrongfully vehemently commensurately forthrightly 1. He was () blamed for the killings.

2. The US economy is not large enough about a fifth of the global total to rescue the entire world ( ).

3. These customers wont require that you () act and dress a certain way.

4. We must think (, ) about how we manage our joint activities and our shared interests.

5. The particular technology happens not to work ( , ) yet.

6. The light automatically and () turns on and off as we pass.

7. They must (, ) embrace Britains language, laws and culture, if they are to be successful and content in this country.

8. They had () persecuted ( ) the Swedish diplomat.

9. The current system of () restricting access to highquality education is inefficient, extremely expensive and barbarically undemocratic.

10. Over the past five years disappointingly few European leaders have spoken as (, ) as Mr. Ch. did.

11. Not everyone disagreed so (, ; ).

12. Its [Icelands] national output and fiscal resources are () smaller [compared with Britains].

. 8. , , . , .

1. He was decidedly under-appreciated.

2. He insisted that he had been wrongfully convicted.

3. Little is publicly known about this party.

4. Only the top 20 percent [of the population] is unambiguously better off.

5. As the business grows, the owner-manager finds it necessary to discuss store procedures so that everybody will act consistently.

6. And that [a sleepy indifference to public policy] has cost Republicans dearly.

7. The Romanian secret police were trying desperately to find out how the information was getting out but they never figure it out.

8. Over the past five years disappointingly few European leaders have spoken as forthrightly (, ) as Mr. Ch. did.

9. He had won handily as mayor of Mentevideo.

10. Managers work intimately with subordinates, but they probably would not seek such intimacy, if it were not demanded by the job.

11. Since 1990 New York has consistently lagged behind the rest of the country in job creation.

12. This work will invariably involve organizing and cooperating elements.

. 9 , , . , .

1. Researchers are painstakingly analyzing this meteorite.

2. But they pointedly noted that after three output increases this year totaling 3.2 million barrels a day, OPECs spare capacity is severely limited.

3. The Prime Minister pointedly mentioned that Mr.N. was not appointed by him.

4. Big business across Europe strongly supports a controversial proposal to create a pan-European corporate tax system.

5. He vigorously opposes this.

6. They have rejected openness most strongly in the recent past.

7. The South African economy is one of a number that look like growing substantially.

8. The crowd laughed appreciatively.

11. He is perfectly in earnest.

12. Historians have speculated ( ) on the forts location, and explorers and archeologists have searched it in vain.

13. I have seen Bill Gates, Microsofts co-founder, give presentations about how the next generation of software will change lives and let us perform many tasks seamlessly.

14.The question was an ambiguously worded one.

15 Trying to record one or more programs at certain times and days remains annoyingly complex.

16. Intuitive, shrewd, with a keen and penetrating intellect, he only ever became critical under pressure and would share knowledge or offer advice tentatively and only when asked. He was a genial host to life, embracing all it had to offer and taking everyone he met into his heart.

17. Naively, we thought the art works would be safer in their hands.

4. (adverbs of degree).

, .. (adverbs of degree of intensity, completeness etc.): absolutely, almost, badly, barely, completely, enormously, enough, entirely, extremely, fairly, far, greatly, hardly, just, keenly, largely, (very) much, nearly, not quite, only, quite, rather, really, scarcely, so, somewhat, thoroughly, too, tremendously, very etc.

. . , .

: almost, also, barely, enough, even, hardly, just,(a) little, mostly, much, narrowly, nearly, quite, rather, really scarcely. , much, , .

only . , . , .

only .

: a lot, a little, a great deal, very much; by a wide margin; by a narrow margin (, ); -ly slightly heavily.

: barely, hardly, scarcely , , , : He hardly knows anybody here. - .

at all (, ) . 10. , , . , .

1. Most of these repatriants found that they barely shared a mother tongue.

2. Five years ago this party barely existed.

3. He has uttered barely a word about his economic policy.

4. It becomes critically important.

5. It will be exceedingly difficult to do this.

6. I was there for seven months and we hardly ever saw him.

7. The budget projections will prove hugely optimistic.

8. This picture profoundly affected me.

9. After three output increases this year, OPECs spare capacity is severely limited.

10. It is clear as noonday that in order to improve the efficiency of the national economy drastically, a transition to innovational socially-oriented development is needed.

11. Conditions vary greatly in this industry from region to region.

12. Moreover, the European Union frequently seems to focus so heavily on its regional agenda that it forgets its global responsibilities.

13. They began to invest heavily in automating these processes.

14. The deadly combination of spiraling prices and falling economic output made the 1970s such a misery.

15. Youll be able to see his intentions behind this deadly offense.

. 11. , , . , .

1. My most recent holiday was when John and I went to Australia, and it was heavenly.

2. That was roughly half past two.

3. These problems are difficult to precisely define.

4. Even within the same industry, firms can differ sharply in their global strategic profiles.

5. The image of computer buffs has shifted dramatically over the past years from bespectacled employees in dead-end jobs to billionaire hotshots like Bill Gates, the Microsoft chief. (1) buff n ) , ; ) ); (2) dead-end job ; (3) hotshot n AmE ;

6. As a consequence, the bank aggressively employed computers and other technological equipment.

7. Asian business badly lag behind their US and European rivals on this issue [climate change].

8. With high taxes and weak job prospects, the states [New York] population is only barely growing.

9. It was something I so dearly wanted.

10. The company irreparably damaged its reputation.

11. This picture profoundly affected me.

12. He took office as Costa Ricas president, after narrowly winning an election in February.

13. At first glance, the companys pre-tax loss of $5.7 billion scarcely looks reassuring.

14. It is blindingly obvious that the document [Iraqs constitution] has been written by those who most benefited from Saddams overthrow.

15. There are a few businesses which do conspicuously better than their competitors year in and year out, in good times and bad.

. 12. , , . , .

1. The company is in an extraordinarily difficult position.

2. Their [Japanese] working conditions are grossly inferior to those found in the average American factory.

3. The results for next years test will be measurably better.

4. Its pretty expensive.

5. These managers are prodigiously talented people.

6. Little is publicly known about this party.

7. These countries entered the EU relatively poor, and for a time received substantial aid.

8. This system looks strikingly familiar to pension systems in Europe.

9. In a society in which success has become so terribly important, having options ( ) will become increasingly vital.

10. The state [India] has made woefully inadequate investments in education.

11. In his 28 years, he has done spectacularly well. (do well , ) 12. They allocate 70 percent of Pakistans annual $ 14 billion budget on defense and debt servicing and barely 4 percent on social services.

13. In 2007 the budgets of governments in rich countries were, as a whole, roughly in balance.

14. It became painfully clear ( ) that the optimists were wrong.

15. With high taxes and weak job prospects, the states [New York] population is only barely growing.

5. (adverb of frequency).

(adverbs of frequency) how often: a) always, continually, daily, frequently, nearly/almost, occasionally, often, once, repeatedly, sometimes, twice, usually etc; b) always, ever, hardly ever, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom etc.

(now and then, from time to time etc.) - . .

: never, hardly ever seldom, : Never has he been, Seldom does he go on business trips etc.

Adverbs of frequency , How often?

. 13. , , . , .

1. He has repeatedly denied wrongdoing.

2. He made this bank consistently profitable.

3. Wealth margins remain consistently high at 1.3%.

4. Never in the history of Hong Kong can any journalist have stuck so doggedly (, ) to the line from Government House.

5. His [the Queens cousin] finances have frequently been the subject of much speculation (; ) as he and his wife live the royal lifestyle without the income to support it.

ALREADY YET . 14 , already yet. , , .

. already () , yet . already , .

A) ? = Have they come yet? ( , ; ) B) ?! = Have they come already? (, , , , ) , , already ( ), , yet ( ) . , yet .

yet , still ( , () , -). yet . ( still , ) 1. (give sth in to sb) ?

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3. (representatives) ?

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quickly sometimes recently sooner best 1. .

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barely never extraordinarily soon pretty constantly often prodigiously near roughly 1. .

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6. (deal with) .

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9. (expensive).

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actually certainly far somewhere fairly apparently almost barely only eventually 1. .

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6. (customers).

7. .

8. , (say nothing).

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once immediately already occasionally thoroughly in good intentionally never always yet (2) time 1. .

2. (on time).

3. (a crowd).

4. / (intentions).

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6. (employer) .

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. 19. , . , , .

1. (appointment).

2. (agree with) (chief accountant).

3. (long time).

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5. (succeed) .

6. (advertisers) .

7. .

8. (competitors) (stand in the way of) .

9. .

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11. (exhibition).

12. .

WORDS OFTEN CONFUSED)

. 1. .

; ; (), , ; , () . 2. . .

1.Reforms allowed people to go into business and start their own / owe business.

2.There still state- owned / owed companies that lose a lot of money.

3.Our own/owe resources are not enough and we need capital from outside.

4.I own/owe a small furniture company in Slovakia.

5.The company will consider my experience/ experiment of different jobs and my educational qualifications.

6.They tried some new promotional activities as an experiment/ experience.

7.The design of this product is under licence/license and companies have to pay to use it.

8.The design of this label is under licence/ license and protected by law.

9.A licensing/licencing agreement is an arrangement between the owner of the design and somebody else to use the design for money.

10.Classical/ classic economics is connected with the names of such people as Adam Swith and John Stuart Mill.

11.Students studied classics/ classical at Oxford.

12.Coach, the US leather goods maker is a classic / classical example.

13. Goods/good can refer to the materials and components to make products.

. 3 1. , .

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8. $5. 000.

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() , ; ( ) . 4. .

1.A series of advertisement for a particular company or product is an advertising campaign.

2.Large companies considered together are referred to as big businesses.

3.In 1970s Britain, there were state-owned companies in many different industries.

4.Companies hit by computer crime are not talking about it because they fear the publicity will harm their image.

5.Florida was a key state in his campaign for reelection.

6.Police have launched a campaign to stop drug dealers.

7.Careful brand management supported by a cleverly crafted advertising campaign, can be highly successful in convincing consumers to pay high prices.

8.In one campaign alone, SBC was able to reach its most profitable potential without significant marketing expense.

9.This information is used to determine which customers to target in promotional campaigns.

10.In the end, yet another group looks at how much revenue each campaign has generated to measure its success.

11.Today training for a specific job is better.

12.Its more useful if you train as a scientist and qualify as a chemist.

13.Caferoma is promoted as an exclusive product for people who love ground coffee.

Advice Advise Effect Affect Lose Loose . 5. .

1..What advice did they receive?

2,.I advise clients giving help and my opinion 3.She got lots of advice about starting her business.

4.It may take years to develop a new drug, then to test it and to show it has effect.

5. The U-turn of inequality, a sharp increase that started during Thatcher - Reagan era, has affected all Western countries.

6..The economic effects on the EU are rather insignificant and some adjustment pressure is expected.

7.Instead, the country itself (Turkey) would be much more affected by membership in the union.

8.It is important to involve people whose support you need to execute decisions that affect them.

9. One main effect on issuing options works like a right issue.

10.Well lose the company if we dont reduce the level of the debt.

11.We are nearly finished but there still a few loose ends to be tied up.

12.Loose organizations need tighter systems.

13. The economic effects on Turkey are evaluated as positive.

14. Every company wants to get close to its customers- but wishing doesnt make it so.

. 6 1. .

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1.Although the FSA accepted that Mr. Einhorn didnt believe he had received inside information, the regulator said it was a serious case of market abuse..

2.The Germans really believe in the policies they are recommending.

3.Previously, the Fed said it expected the period of exceptionally low rates to last until mid-2013.

4.The economy appeared to be on the path of recovery.

5.That increase of $93 billion translates into the rise of 4.3% a year after inflation.

6.To spend or not to spend: that is the question facing any chancellor.

7.The president tries to assure investors that economic fundamentals are sound.

8. You should always explain failure as a lack of effort, even if this is only partially accurate.

.8. . .

1. We expect / accepted someone in his position to be able to identify inside information when he receives it.

2 Populism is good politics / policy but it is bad economic policy/ politics, said the energy specialist.

3..Complaints about the obstacles thrown by U.S. politics/ policies were discussed by finance leaders who lunched/ launched together at Wall Street.

4. A series of a relatively positive data/ date releases have eased fears about recovery in the worlds largest economy\ ecomonical.

5..It turns out that a little taste of power has a substantial effect/ affect.

6..Mr. Ghosn predicted some success among Europes political leaders in solving debt and structural issues that affect/ effect many of the continents economies/ economics.

7. There are doubts that negotiations will have resulting positive effect/ affect on European security.

. 9 .

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.10. .

1.Companies can raise capital, that is find capital they need.

2.We raised money by selling some of the shares.

3.Volkwagens sales can rise to 1,058,000 cars this year.

4.The economy is growing and our profits are rising.

5.What if the company needs more financing than the owner can raise.

6. It was done with the sole purpose of advertising.

7.She is a sole owner who works by herself providing consultancy.

8.I promise, I wont tell a soul.

9.Administration can sell parts of the company.

10.If you have never sailed before, try our new model, the Classic.

11.I didnt pay the full price for these shoes. I bought them in a sale.

. 11. . .

1In a competitive market, employees may be tempted to move for a rise/raise in salary.

2..The entry of a country into WTO is rational if it raises/rises internal and external security and\or increase overall economic benefit.

3.They received $11m from a group of financial backers and hope to raise/rise $5 mln soon.

4.Perhaps further aid funding is warranted for the smallest and least-advanced countries to raise/rise the quality and quantity of representation by them.

5. A person or organization that sells/sales something is a seller.

6.Theres a small group of buyers with special needs who can be profitable to sell/sail to.

7.Prices were fixed by the government, not by buyers and sellers/sailers in the marketplace.

8. Accountants try to match the costs of producing the goods with the revenues from the sale/sell.

9.Prices are rising/raising very slowly, with an inflation rate of two per cent a year.

10.Sales have risen/raised by a small amount.

11. I owe/own my parents a lot, he admitted.

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. 13. . .

1.After launch/lunch the product is officially available for sale.

2.Mass market describes goods /good that sell in large quantities and the people who buy them.

3.Their success owes/owns more to good luck than to good /goods management.

4.You must be able to work on your own/owner initiative.

5. Globalization is raising/rising the cost to economies with poor economic governance.

6.Staff/stuff underestimated how solidly they were required to perform during working hours.

7.People didnt choose a bank on the basis/base of how convenient it was.

8. If something is economical/economic, it is cheap/chip to buy.

9.Many organizations offer language training /trainer to companies.

10.Advanced countries will have to provide room/rooms for poor nations to develop their own strategies of economic catch-up.

11. With this type of equipment, product/products life cycles are so short that product launches/lunches are very frequent.

2.We need talented journalists who are very good at/for their job and extremely motivated to find/found out as much as they can.

13.One partial solution is to raise/rise the quantity and quality of staffing /stuffing and to boost training.

14.When I started, I needed to develop other skills, which would come through experience/experiment.

15.An accountant cant ignore the fact that the company spent money on producing the goods/gods.

16.If the European Commission is made of a harder stuff\ staff, the rules will apply to all European public companies.

.14. . .

Rise; raise; principles; ground; train; owe; own;

goods; principal.

1.Inflation is prices, and the rate at which they are is the inflation rate.

2.I my brother $ 3.We need good managers, which can be achieved through in-house courses.

4.We certainly covered a lot of ... I mean the number of things we got through.

5.He didnt like teaching and decided to as an accountant at evening classes.

6.If you get some money for investment in a business project, you capital.

7. He asked for help from a colleague who him a favour.

8.A product with the retailers name on it is an own-brand product.

9.Mass market describes that sell in large quantities and the people who buy them.

10.The Institutes headquarters are in London with the administration office being based in Glasgo.

11.Their aggressive focus on profits led executives to ignore that had contributed to their previously untarnished reputation.

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